I have 6 and Im not sure if they are all males. One male in each tank will sit out on a log or hut and call away. The other frogs are either sub dominant males or unwilling females.
Ian how do you have yours set up?
I wanted to add this UVB report (shared to me by Johan de Gruyter) to this conversation because I do not understand why some of you just give some random advice on using uvb lamps without any "correct" knowledge, background, experience or what so ever... Everything we do should be thought trough,studied or handled with care since we work with LIVING ANIMALS! I am not saying everyone's advice is wrong or some things will not work or whatever, but I can find so much junk stories and advice on the internet... And the use of UVB can be realy harmfull! That is why I believe studies like the article bellow are very usefull, informative and even necessary to know. So please read this before adding UVB bulbs to your tanks! Enjoy.
"Amphibians have recently experienced unprecedented declines in the wild, the causes of which are often difficult to mitigate. This has increased the importance of ex situ conservation; however, long-term maintenance and breeding of amphibians in captivity often has limited success. In vertebrates, vitamin D is required for calcium homeostasis and is produced endogenously in skin exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light; however, UV light can be harmful to amphibians in some instances. Carotenoids are dietary pigments that may provide protection from UV light. The aim of this study was to assess the protective capability of carotenoids against the potentially harmful effects of UV light in Silurana (=Xenopus) tropicalis larvae raised in an enhanced or limited UV environment. Tadpole survival and the size and developmental stage reached by the end of the study period were measured. Carotenoids had a significantly positive effect on developmental rate in both UV-limited and UV-enhanced environments. Larvae in an enhanced UV environment were significantly larger than those raised under a limited UV environment, irrespective of diet. Carotenoid-fed larvae tended to have increased survival in relation to those raised without carotenoids, but only in a limited UV environment. Carotenoids appear to provide little protection against UV light in this case. The role of carotenoids in amphibian health has not previously been studied. We show that carotenoid availability significantly influences development and may increase survival in S. (X.) tropicalis larvae. This finding may have important implications for recommendations made on the nutrition of amphibians in captivity."
(part 2 : Influnce of UVB on Oophaga pumilio study)
"Ambient ultraviolet-B radiation can harm amphibian eggs, larvae and adults. However, some amphibians avoid UV-B radiation when given the opportunity. The strawberry poison dart frog, Oophaga pumilio, is diurnal and males vocalize throughout the day in light gaps under forest canopies that expose them to solar radiation. Previous studies have demonstrated that males calling from high perches are more successful at mating than those at lower perches. We investigated whether frogs at higher perches receive more ultraviolet-B than those calling from lower perches. We also investigated whether frogs on perches receiving relatively low ultraviolet-B levels maintained their positions for longer compared to individuals calling from perches receiving higher levels of ultraviolet-B. Finally, since it has been hypothesized that some animals utilize levels of UV-A as a visual cue to avoid UV-B damage, we artificially elevated ultraviolet-A levels to examine whether males exposed to artificially elevated ultraviolet-A abandoned their perches sooner compared to males exposed to visible light. We found that frogs called from perches receiving low ultraviolet-B regardless of perch height, and that frogs maintain their positions longer on perches receiving low ultraviolet-B compared to perches receiving even slightly higher ultraviolet-B levels. Exposing the frogs to artificially elevated levels of ultraviolet-A radiation caused males to move off of their perches faster than when they were exposed to a control light source. These experiments suggest that ultraviolet radiation plays an important role in frog behavior related to perch selection, even in rainforests where much of the solar radiation is shielded by the forest canopy."
"Many animals, plants, and microorganisms are harmed by ultraviolet-B radiation. In particular, several members of class amphibia are negatively affected by exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation. Exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation can cause death or various types of sublethal damage in amphibians. One mechanism to lessen the effect of harmful ultraviolet-B radiation is to limit exposure to sunlight behaviorally. Few studies have examined the behavioral sensitivity of adult amphibians to ultraviolet-B radiation. Using both field experiments and field observations, we found that two species of diurnal poison-dart frogs in Costa Rica (Dendrobates pumilio, D. auratus) consistently preferred areas in the field and within experimental testing chambers that offered low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation. In field observations, vocalizing D. pumilio were found at locations with significantly lower levels of ambient ultraviolet-B compared to random locations throughout their natural habitat. Ultraviolet-B avoidance behavior may be an important behavioral response for tropical frogs in light of recent evidence suggesting a significant increase in the levels of ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in the tropics over the past decade."
Those are good links, Tijl. However, the tone of your post comes off as angry and judgmental and doesn't make a distinction between the people that you say are giving "random" advice and the people who are trying to help other people on the board. It could be that something is being lost in translation here, but the tone of your post may turn people off and diminish the importance of the information you are sharing. I know it is frustrating sometimes when you come across information that you think is wrong, but yelling at people is not going to help. One of the things that I think separates this board from Facebook is its ability to police information and weed out the practices that are unproductive or dangerous to our animals. That can be done without alienating fellow posters, though.
I am sorry if my comment comes over as an angry comment to you, I hope this does not aply to everyone and appolagize if i offended someone.
You are probably right that things get lost in translation and this might set this tone a bit too rude.
I must admit my comment is judgemental (if this is the correct term) towards people that gave or give advice without the nessecary experience or thought. For me the above comment is a call for awereness to people who ever come across this topic in the future! So they can keep in mind that not every comment or advice is correct.
I think people that already gave such advice, must know there is a difference between helping, knowing and guessing. Most of the time they mix these 3 things together.
Our hobby should be based on evidence and experience, not some random guessing or probabilities. There has been allot of correct information gathered in all these years of frog keeping by now. Most just don't like to do research, but those who do will be rewarded. Still I see thess mistake happen over and over again all the time and came to the conclusion this is a big trend in the hobby. Unfortunalty I also have seen the concequence of these trends and to this day I see allot of animals pay the ultimate price. In the end they are the only ones that suffer from this trend. Again,these are animal lives we deal with, not just some luxury products for our amusement.
I am convinced every single person here would be amazed by the number of frog that die in captivity due to the lack of these mistakes and trends!! My guess is that its closer to millions than it is to tens of thousands. I remember a study that said ; the average life expectency of Dendrobates Auratus is 1 year and 4 months... The saddest part of this is that what i have seen i my years of experience, it is probably true! Tho our frogs can easy get to 15 years of age.
Aside from that, I also see some good advice in this topic. I never said I did not. I hope this can explain my above comment more, without being rude.