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Discussion Starter · #1 · (Edited)
This thread might get messy, but hopefully it is useful.

I'd like this thread to be a place where anyone can supply a citation, link (hopefully a free download), and short description of relevant peer-reviewed journal articles that are relevant to dart frog keeping.

I'll start. This is the article that established the genus Adelphobates and moved D. galactonotus into Adelphobates.

Grant, T., D. R. Frost, J. P. Caldwell, R. Gagliardo, C. F. B. Haddad, P. J. R. Kok, D. B. Means, B. P. Noonan, W. E. Schargel, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. Phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia: Athesphatanura: Dendrobatidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 299: 1–262

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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
Here is one of my favorites -- a study of the perching behavior of O. pumilio as it relates to UVB and UVA exposure.

Kats LB, Bucciarelli GM, Schlais DE, Blaustein AR, Han BA. Ultraviolet radiation influences perch selection by a neotropical poison-dart frog. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51364. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051364


Abstract:

Ambient ultraviolet-B radiation can harm amphibian eggs, larvae and adults. However, some amphibians avoid UV-B radiation when given the opportunity. The strawberry poison dart frog, Oophaga pumilio, is diurnal and males vocalize throughout the day in light gaps under forest canopies that expose them to solar radiation. Previous studies have demonstrated that males calling from high perches are more successful at mating than those at lower perches. We investigated whether frogs at higher perches receive more ultraviolet-B than those calling from lower perches. We also investigated whether frogs on perches receiving relatively low ultraviolet-B levels maintained their positions for longer compared to individuals calling from perches receiving higher levels of ultraviolet-B. Finally, since it has been hypothesized that some animals utilize levels of UV-A as a visual cue to avoid UV-B damage, we artificially elevated ultraviolet-A levels to examine whether males exposed to artificially elevated ultraviolet-A abandoned their perches sooner compared to males exposed to visible light. We found that frogs called from perches receiving low ultraviolet-B regardless of perch height, and that frogs maintain their positions longer on perches receiving low ultraviolet-B compared to perches receiving even slightly higher ultraviolet-B levels. Exposing the frogs to artificially elevated levels of ultraviolet-A radiation caused males to move off of their perches faster than when they were exposed to a control light source. These experiments suggest that ultraviolet radiation plays an important role in frog behavior related to perch selection, even in rainforests where much of the solar radiation is shielded by the forest canopy.

This article as been mentioned and discussed here before.
 

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Discussion Starter · #6 ·
ASSORTATIVE MATING IN POISON‐DART FROGS BASED ON AN ECOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT TRAIT

R. Graham Reynolds, Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick

First published: 25 July 2007

Abstract
The origin of new species can be influenced by both deterministic and stochastic factors. Mate choice and natural selection may be important deterministic causes of speciation (as opposed to the essentially stochastic factors of geographic isolation and genetic drift). Theoretical models predict that speciation is more likely when mate choice depends on an ecologically important trait that is subject to divergent natural selection, although many authors have considered such mating/ecology pleiotropy, or “magic‐traits” to be unlikely. However, phenotypic signals are important in both mate choice and ecological processes such as avoiding predation. In chemically defended species, it may be that the phenotypic characteristics influencing mate choice are the same signals being used to transmit a warning to potential predators, although few studies have demonstrated this in wild populations. We tested for assortative mating between two color morphs of the Strawberry Poison‐Dart Frog, Dendrobates pumilio, a group with striking geographic variation in aposematic color patterns. We found that females significantly prefer individuals of their own morph under two different light treatments, indicating strong assortative mating based on multiple coloration cues that are also important ecological signals. This study provides a rare example of one phenotypic trait affecting both ecological viability and nonrandom mating, indicating that mating/ecology pleiotropy is plausible in wild populations, particularly for organisms that are aposematically colored and visually orienting.

My summary: O. pumilio prefers to associate/mate with members of its own morph.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00174.x
 

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The relationship between spindly leg
syndrome incidence and water composition,
overfeeding, and diet in newly
metamorphosed harlequin frogs (Atelopus
spp.)



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Discussion Starter · #9 ·
Werner, Philine & Elle, Ortwin & Schulte, Lisa & Lötters, Stefan. (2011). Home range behaviour in male and female poison frogs in Amazonian Peru (Dendrobatidae: Ranitomeya reticulata). Journal of Natural History. 45. 15-27. 10.1080/00222933.2010.502257.

Abstract: The poison frog Ranitomeya reticulata was studied for 3 months while mark–recapture surveys were performed. Ranitomeya species deposit terrestrial clutches and carry tadpoles to phytotelmata with few taxa performing biparental brood care including larval feeding. Home range size and spatial affinity to phytotelmata in the genus are linked to mating systems. In R. reticulata, individual home range size and overlap were similar in both sexes, indicating equal levels of site fidelity. Although territory defence was never observed, strong intrasexual intolerance within individuals' core areas was found. The large intersexual home range overlap for breeding pairs indicated that mate fidelity occurs. Individuals' home ranges were not overlapping, suggesting that R. reticulata lacks pair-bonding or strongly cooperative behaviour in parental duties. The number of ground bromeliads containing phytotelmata and home range size of males were positively correlated. Our findings suggest that females do not perform egg-feeding and male-only parental care is likely.

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Discussion Starter · #10 ·
A study on the toxicity of BTi (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) on frog tadpoles (Leptodactylus latrans).

Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in aqueous suspension on the South American common frog Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) tadpoles. Rafael C. Lajmanovich, et al. Environmental Research 136 (2015) 205–212

 
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Discussion Starter · #11 ·
Rojas B, Pašukonis A. 2019. From habitat use to social behavior: natural history of a voiceless poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius. PeerJ 7:e7648 From habitat use to social behavior: natural history of a voiceless poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius

Abstract:

Descriptive studies of natural history have always been a source of knowledge on which experimental work and scientific progress rely. Poison frogs are a well-studied group of small Neotropical frogs with diverse parental behaviors, distinct calls, and bright colors that warn predators about their toxicity; and a showcase of advances in fundamental biology through natural history observations. The dyeing poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, is emblematic of the Guianas region, widespread in the pet trade, and increasingly popular in research. This species shows several unusual behaviors, such as the lack of advertisement calls and the aggregation around tree-fall gaps, which remain poorly described and understood. Here, we summarize our observations from a natural population of D. tinctorius in French Guiana collected over various field trips between 2009 and 2017; our aim is to provide groundwork for future fundamental and applied research spanning parental care, animal dispersal, disease spread, habitat use in relation to color patterns, and intra-specific communication, to name a few. We report sex differences in habitat use and the striking invasion of tree-fall gaps; describe their courtship and aggressive behaviors; document egg development and tadpole transport; and discuss how the knowledge generated by this study could set the grounds for further research on the behavior, ecology, and conservation of this species.


First posted on DB by @Tijl here.
 
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Discussion Starter · #12 ·
Many links to papers concerned with dart (and other families) toxin sequestration here:

 

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Discussion Starter · #13 ·
Paper on genetic recombination of chytrid caused by human mixing of non-sympatric species.

Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage

Rhys A. Farrer, Lucy A. Weinert, Jon Bielby, Trenton W. J. Garner, Francois Balloux, Frances Clare, Jaime Bosch, Andrew A. Cunningham, Che Weldon, Louis H. du Preez, Lucy Anderson, Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond, Revital Shahar-Golan, Daniel A. Henk, Matthew C. Fisher

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Nov 2011, 108 (46) 18732-18736; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1111915108

Link: Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage (there is a free PDF download available there)

Abstract:
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity.
 
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Discussion Starter · #14 ·
Manipulation of the calcium content of insectivore diets through supplementary dusting

Christopher J. Michaels, Rachael E. Antwis and Richard F. Preziosi

Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 2(3) 2014

Abstract:
Insects fed to captive insectivores are deficient in calcium with inverse calcium to phosphorous ratios (Ca:p), and supplementation is required to avoid nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD). One method of improving the nutritional value of feeder insects is by “dusting” with powdered supplements, although it is often suggested that these are rapidly shed from prey insects. Here we analysed the calcium content of hatchling, second, fourth and adult instars of black field crickets and silent crickets at increasing time intervals after dusting, as well as comparing three commercially available brands of supplement in fourth instar black field crickets. Our data show these brands do not differ from one another in terms of calcium delivery, despite differences in calcium content. We also show that dusting can be used to increase Ca:p ratios above 1:1 in crickets up to 5.5 hours after dusting, with the exception of adult black field crickets, and thus dusting is a useful method of calcium supplementation.



 

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A captive breeding experiment reveals no evidence of reproductive isolation among lineages of a polytypicpoison frog.

Abstract
Reproductive isolation is central to the generation of biodiversity, yet a clear understanding of the contributions
of alternative reproductive barriers to this process remains elusive. Studies of young lineages that have diverged
in ecologically important traits can offer insights into the chronology and relative importance of various isolating
mechanisms during speciation. In poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), within-species lineages often differ dramatically
in coloration, a trait subject to natural and sexual selection. Coloration in the strawberry poison frog (Oophaga
pumilio) is particularly diverse and previous work suggests the potential for reproductive isolation. We used a
captive breeding experiment to assess the extent of reproductive isolation among three allopatric, genetically
distinct O. pumilio lineages that differ in coloration. We compared reproduction of within- and between-lineage
pairs, predicting that if lineages are isolated, within-lineage pairs would be most successful. We also examined
the fertility and productivity of F1 backcrosses of admixed offspring. We found no evidence suggesting
behavioural pre-zygotic or post-zygotic reproductive isolation, indicating that isolation would not be maintained
by intrinsic mechanisms in the event of secondary contact. Future work should address costs of between-lineage
matings exerted by extrinsic natural and/or sexual selection against admixed offspring.


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Discussion Starter · #16 ·
The significance of spatial memory for water finding in a tadpole-transporting frog.
Animal Behaviour
Volume 116, June 2016, Pages 89-98



Poison frogs shuttle their tadpoles to dispersed aquatic deposition sites.

We investigated if frogs rely on spatial memory to relocate known deposition sites.

We quantified movement in relation to removed deposition sites and olfactory cues.

Tadpole-carriers rely on spatial memory and return to removed pool sites.

High concentrations of conspecific tadpole odour attract frogs to novel sites.


 

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Reproductive biology of Ameerega trivittata (Anura: Dndrobatidae) in an area of terra firme forest in eastern Amazonia
Ellen Cristina Serrão ACIOLI, Selvino NECKEL-OLIVEIRA


Reproductive biology Ameerega trivitata

Of particular interest is the following observation from the study on where the frogs were (what they were on) when they were sighted.

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Feeding or avoiding? Facultative egg feeding in a Peruvian poison frog (Ranitomeya variabilis) - Lisa Maria Schulte

Link here.

A lot of this supported generally-circulated information about Ranitomeya Variabilis group and Vanzolinii group (incl. Imitator) breeding methods, but provided more detailed explanation and a few random findings for me. I think this would be great if someone who has experience breeding these animals were able to back up/challenge these findings here. Feel free to correct anything I might have got wrong.

Some of my most interesting takeaways:

  • Ranitomeya Variabilis males were responsible for parental care, and therefore are unable to feed unfertilised eggs. However, in some instances, males moved tadpoles to bromeliad axils that contain eggs. This suggested a move towards facultative egg-feeding, despite the female not being present in parental care.
  • Eggs are always laid under the water line in plant axils, suggesting the frogs know carnivorous tadpoles will eat eggs or smaller tadpoles in the same area.
  • Because the tadpoles are deposited into axils with already-laid eggs (and presumably fertilised), it increases the likelihood of more than 1 tadpole surviving, as opposed to the only one.
  • (By contrast Oophaga females are responsible for parental care, and can thus decide where to feed unfertilised eggs i.e. in plant axils that have their own tadpoles.)
  • R. Amazonica (part of Variabilis family) were observed to increase the amount of this facultative egg-feeding behaviour at the onset of the dry season, in order to increase the likelihood of the tadpoles spawning. This could suggest a breeding method for Ranitomeya Amazonica, and perhaps other Ranitomeya, that would decrease the necessary input from the keeper, by simulating a dry season, increasing the amount of tadpole care by the parents.
  • Ranitomeya Vanzolinii has dual-parental care. Eggs are laid in leaf litter or above the water line in plant axils, so they cannot be preyed upon by other tadpoles. Tadpoles are moved, and females will feed unfertilised eggs when necessary to tadpoles.
  • The Ranitomeya Variabilis preferred outright to lay in the artificially-placed bottles than plant axils. This is interesting because they all had a lot more capacity than the plant axils, which may be suggesting that if we are to provide egg and tadpole deposition sites, they should be larger bodies of water than film canisters.
Cheers
 
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