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Glossary

Note: This list is a work in progress, and some of the information is rough due to lack of documented explanations.

Dendroboard Species Difficulty Rating Explained:
  • Novice - These are the best "beginner" species in the hobby, tending to have general ease of care in all life stages, breeding, and feeding.
  • Intermediate - These frogs are for more experienced keepers, having part of their life stage challenging enough that experienced in general care of PDFs is needed before attempting. With Thumbnails, these would be their small size (sensitive to lack of food - best after experienced keeping FF cultures constant), where others are tricky breeders.
  • Advanced - These are frogs best left after a number of years of experience with intermediate level frogs - they range from being tricky in multiple life stages or particularly hard in one life stage (for example, pumilio are advanced due to the level of experience needed to raise froglets).
  • Expert - These are frogs left only for the most experienced keepers, as they are challenging in all life stages. These frogs are also highly limited in their captive population due to their care needs, and are best left to those who can care for them.[/*:m:291pk5up]
Glossary of terms used in the hobby and on this site:
  • Morph - this is a toughy. For Frogs, "morphs" are populations in the wild with general physical characteristics (pattern, color, size) - not man made morphs, and not the "simple genetic" "morphs" like in the herp world... for our uses albino is a genetic color form of a population/morph. This distinction between the two different definitions of the term "morph" need to be made clear, as its often confusing to people coming from the reptile hobby. These animals are not subspecies, but rather variations within the species over the range.
  • Species Group - a group of related species within a genus showing similar characteristics such as breeding behaviors, morphology (erm.... what else?)

    Examples of Species Groups in the hobby:[/*:m:291pk5up]
  • Thumbnails (Dendrobates) - This group is made up of the Dendrobates vanzolinii species group which are characterized by small size and being facultative/non-obligate eggfeeders - they will use infertile eggs to supplement tadpole diet but tadpoles can be raised successfully without them, but tadpoles must be raised individually due to tadpole cannibalism. Eggs often laid in film canisters off the ground, angle preference depends on species. Species range from terrestrial to highly arboreal.

    Formerly known from the Dendrobates quinquevittatus species group, genetic work showed that the type species, D. quiquevittatus, and D. castaneoticus were actually not closely related to the facultative eggfeeders of the group and have been assigned to the "White Egg" species group. Some other species are mistakenly included in this group due to small size, but do not share the other characteristics and are members of other species groups.
  • Tinc group (Dendrobates) - D. tinc and closely related species. Terrestrial species larger in size but generally go for smaller food items. Tadpoles can be raised communally, eggs usually laid in huts. Most common species group in the hobby?
  • Eggfeeder (Dendrobates) - more advanced species, generally terrestrial. Tadpoles highly adpated to eat exclusively eggs provided by the parent, and must be cared for by parent in tank, provide parents with water sources such as water filled film canisters and/or bromeliads. Froglets morph out small and are extremely delecate, and are a challenge to raise.
  • "White Egg" Group - (I'm totally making this name up for lack of better name) - D. quinq, D. casti, D. galacs - These species were originally included in other species groups until genetic work grouped them together. All three species lay white eggs, that later turn to black tadpoles.
  • Epipedobates tricolor group - The smaller Epipedobates, represented by E. tricolor and E. anthonyi in the hobby, sometimes mistakenly included in the Thumbnails species group. These frogs prefer large food items for their size, do best in male heavy groups, lay large clutches of eggs (10+) preferably on horizontally oriented leaves which are guarded by a male, and tadpoles can be raised communally.
  • Epipedobates trivittatus group - The larger Epipedobates in the hobby including E. trivittatus, E. bassleri, and E. silverstonei most notibly. Very large, generally skittish frogs prefering large food items, male heavy groups, and reproduction in captivity is uncommon. When reproduction does occur the clutches are some of the largest in the family, and tadpoles can be raised communally.

    Other misc. species groups in the hobby... Minutus (formerly Minyobates), Allobates, Cryptophyllobates, and a few Epis not assigned to the before mentioned species groups. Species group information for these frogs are given in their individual caresheets.[/*:m:291pk5up]
General living styles:
  • Terrestrial - These are frogs that in the wild stay within one meter of the ground. In captivity, especially in shorter tanks, these frogs may take advantage of available height, but floorspace is primarily of concern when housing these species, and hidespots on the floor need to be provided (leaf litter, film canisters on the ground for smaller species, coco huts for the larger species).
  • Semi-Terrestrial/Semi-Arboreal - These are frogs that still stay within close proximity to the ground, but take advantage of available vegetation and similar structures for courting and breeding spots above the ground. In a tank they will be as often up in the vegetation as they are in the leaf litter, so high and floorspace should be taken into consideration with these species. Hidespots on the floor and low levels above the ground both may be used.
  • Arboreal - These are frogs that in the wild live 50'+ off the ground in epiphytic gardens, and in captivity will rarely be found on the floor of the tank. In these tanks a good amount of hieght is wanted, and the width and depth of the tank is more important in determining the aboreal space rather than the floorspace. Vegetation and hidespots need to be provided for the frogs above floor level.[/*:m:291pk5up]
Lineage Descriptors:
  • Captive Bred (CB) - These are animals that are bred, born, and raised in captivity. These animals tend to be healthier, hardier, and easier captives than their WC/LTC ancestors, as they are used to captive conditions.
  • Farm Raised (FR) - A complicated term that can imply different things depending on the farm, and resellers often sell these animals under the lables CB or WC, both inaccurate, depending on the personal opinion of the reseller. These animals are acutally somewhere in between WC and CB... captive bred and/or raised in their country of origin, these animals need the medical care of WCs, but tend to be much hardier and better adapted to captivity than their WC counterparts.
  • Long Term Captive (LTC) - These are animals that have been in captivity over a year (6 mo? what time should we set on this? I think a year is what people are usually looking for in this term) but were originally wild caught. They have usually adapted to captivity at this point, and are hardier at this stage (tho still less hardy than CB) than when originally WC. Still a bit trickier than CB examples of the species, but are usually over the medical problems associated with importation.
  • Wild Caught (WC) - These are animals collected in the wild and exported from their native country, usually breeding adults collected during the breeding season (if seasonal breeders). These animals need to be treated for parasites and other medical conditions, are highly stressed, and may come in in very bad condition and are best left for experienced keepers, even if the species is considered Novice.[/*:m:291pk5up]
Temperment:
  • While a good number of species can be generalized into a "boldness" level, just as many can show different boldness levels depending on environmental conditions, humidity, seasonality, and even just the individuals.
  • Extremely Bold - These are frogs that not only aren't afraid of you, but tend to be listed as the "beggers" - frogs that actually recognize you as a food source and will clamor at the front of the tank in anticipation of food. Froglets may be skittish to bold, but get bolder with age. D. tinctorius and D. azureus are most well known for this trait.
  • Bold - These are frogs that are out and about in the tank, and aren't particularly disturbed by your presence, even in the tank, and tend to be the best "display" frogs as they are easily seen, and rarely startled. Froglets may be skittish, but outgrow this with age. Species include E. tricolor, D. imitator ssp., D. galactonotus.
  • Skittish -These are frogs that can be seen out and about in the tank, but usually skitter away when you enter the room, or make sudden movements near their tanks, but usually return to view when they feel comfortable again. Froglets can be shy to extremely skittish, outgrowing this as they age, become more comfortable with surroundings, and used to the actions of their keepers. Examples include E. trivittatus, A. zaparo, and D. fantasticus 'Standard'.
  • Shy - These are frogs known for being heard, and not seen, and can be very frustrating charges for those expecting a display animal. While it varies by conditions and individuals, species examples may include D. variabilis, some morphs of D. ventrimaculatus, and the Panguana D. lamasi.
Stages of Life
  • Egg - Conception of a frog begins with the egg. Depending on the species, the female will lay the eggs and then the male will fertilize them, or the male will fertilize a spot and the female will lay them there. It is believed that eggs can be fertilized more than once, thus different males could contibute to the clutch of eggs. Again, depending on species, eggs will take different lengths of time to mature and hatch.
  • Tadpole - the second stage of life is the tadpole. This is the aquatic stage of life for dart frogs. The time spent in the water will vary depending on a vast array that include, but are not limited to, species, water temperature, food, hormone levels...

    The first milestone in a tad poles life is leaving the egg. This is usually done within 24 hours, but if the tad doesn't have the strengh, it can die at this point. Next, is when it gets its back legs. This is about 1.2 way through the tad's develomental process. The thrid is when the tad gets its front legs. This signifies that the tad is almost ready to begome a frog - usually 2-3 weeks away. The last stage is described in the next definition - morph.
  • Morph - not to be confused with "morph" that is associated wtih the color and appearance of the frog, this is a develomental stage that marks the end of tad's days in the water and its change into being a frog. This metamorphasis (hence the shortend "morph") is when the tadpole will stop eating and its mouth will change into a frogs mouth, it will loose its gills and its tail will be absorbed. The absorbing of the tail is what gives the tad energy to do this process. Once the tad morphs out and befomes a froglet (see below), that day is the time when the people in the hobby start counting the frogs age. Similar to a hatch date for lizards, birthday for live bearing animals, frogs have morph dates.
  • New Morph - this is first stage of a frogs life, similar to human's infant stage. This is a very critical stage in the frogs life as it is most vaunerable. This stage does not have a set time frame for this period of life, but 2-4 weeks is a good estimate.
  • Froglet - the second stage of life, similar to human's toddler stage. This stage is most critical for some frogs, typically egg feeders, because many difficult species/morphs of frogs rarely make it past this stage. Other frogs have little probems in this stage. Many times frogs in this stage are offered for sale. This is akin to buying a cat or puppy before its weened at 8 weeks. It can be done, but is often not the best practice. Usually lasts until 3 months of age.
  • Juvi - the thrid stage of life, similar to a human's adolessant stage. Once in this stage, many frogs are considered to be out of the woods, and are offered for sale. Many are about 1/3 to 1/2 the way grown, and depending on the species - thumbnails in particular, maturity will often occur in this time period, so for thim this title is missleading. But for simplicity sake, we'll define the stages of life based on time from morphing, not actual development as many frogs develope at slightly different rates. Usually lasts until 6 months of age.
  • Sub-adult - the fourth stage of life, similar to a human's teen age years. This is when many frogs will reach maturity and can be accurately sexed. Things like calling and courting may be observed during this time period, but mating will not happen. Usually a frogs adult appearance will maturate during this time period. This stage usually lasts until 12 months.
  • Adult - the fith stage of life, similar to graduating from high school - the frog has finially made it. Mating will occur, eggs will be laid, and the cycle will start all over again.

0.0.0 = male.female.unsexed

Contributors:
Corey Wickliffe (KeroKero)
Mike Myers (defaced)


If you would like to see any updates or modifications to this care sheet please let myself or a moderator know.

Last Updated 7/30/2006
 
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