07-02-2006, 11:50 PM
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Columbus, Ohio
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Dendrobates ventrimaculatus - Intermediate
Dendrobates ventrimaculatus - The Amazonian Poison frog
- Difficulty: Intermediate – Based on size and behavior. Considered a good starter thumbnail.
- Location & History: French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru; Discovered in 1935 by Shreve.
- Descriptions & Behavior: Behavior can range from shy to bold, depending on enclosure. They are fast movers when startled. Vents tend to be arboreal as adults, however froglets may prefer leaf litter.
Note:These morphs represent unique subpopulations in the wild that share general physical characteristics, and for that reason different morphs should not be mixed.
The "species" D. ventrimaculatus actually includes a number of true species that have yet to be sorted out by taxonomists. More than one of these possible future species is represented in the hobby. Things are further confused by the fact that most of these animals look very similar, with little difference to the untrained eye, and are often confused in captivity.
French Guiana Yellow - The most common in the hobby. Although often separated into "blue leg" and "grey leg", these are not true morphs but rather just variation within the morph.
Red - The red tone of stripes goes all the way down to the blue of the legs.
Gold Amazonicus - (aka Peruvian Vents, Rio Tigre Amazonicus) Formerly known as D. amazonicus the 'Gold' form of this animal possesses light, metallic yellow markings rather than the flat, bold yellow of the FG Yellow vents, and these markings are thicker. Throat markings are different than FG Yellow vents.
"Orange" Amazonicus - Formerly known as D. amazonicus, this animal differs from the Red Vent in size, coloration, and throat markings. In contrast to the name, it is actually bright red in coloration - a truer red than 'Red Vent' and 'Kelly Line Amazonicus' and lacking any orange to yellow coloration - and differs enough from both to be a different morph. They seem to have by far the most trouble with breeding, tadpoles, froglets etc., than the other D. ventrimaculatus populations in captivity.
Kelly Line Amazonicus - (aka Red Line Amazonicus) Formerly known as D. amazonicus, this animal differs from the Red Vent in size, coloration (more red/orange than the brighter red of the red vent, and the color transitions to yellow where it meets the legs), and throat markings. This population is more variable in the red/orange coloration.
New importations of farm raised animals from Peru are being brought in through the INIBICO and Understory Enterprises (UE) projects, and these animals with known localities should be kept separate from even identical seeming animals already present in the hobby, as its likely they are from different populations.
With many of the new imports these codes will become increasingly important. We owe the hobby to be responsible and keep these morphs true. Without this, sustating these animals in the hobby will be virtually impossible.
For an explanation of the UE codes used below please click here!
DV-CIN - 'Iquitos Red-Orange UE' - "Widespread throughout the Amazon basin, this particular ventrimaculatus form hails from lowland rainforest regions near Iquitos, Peru. The contrast of red - orange, on black, with turquoise legs combines to create a truly stunning frog. Non aggressive, it will live and breed well as a small colony in a vertically oriented vivarium." (1)
DV-SBPEL - 'Borja Ridge UE' - "A beautiful golden-yellow ventrimaculatus with blue legs. Adult size is similar to that of Iquitos ventris, so this is quite a large ventrimaculatus, which for us has proven to be one of the bolder ventrimaculatus in the vivarium... this ventrimaculatus is a lowland form, and is abundant in areas with an abundance of guzmania bromeliads in the trees and understory." (1)
DV-BTN - 'Blackwater UE' - "Living in sympatry again with reticulatus, [UE] has here another large orange ventrimaculatus. This beautiful frog is very similar to the Iquitos red/orange vents [UE] has offered, but these frogs have a tendency towards wider orange striping, often with a transition to yellow towards the lateral regions. This frog should not be mixed with or confused with the Iquitos Red/Orange ventris [UE] is offering. This population exists in the Rio Tigre region, well removed from Iquitos populations." (1)
- General Care:
Optimum temperature range of 70°F – 80°F, while some keepers report that temps as low as 55°F are okay.
Vents may be kept in groups, although females may eat or stomp each others eggs.
As Vents are arboreal in nature, vertically-oriented vivariums work best. Bromeliads are useful, serving as hiding spaces, egg deposition sites, and tad-rearing sites.
- Breeding & Tadpole Care:
Females will deposit eggs in film canisters (success has been reported for canisters oriented horizontally, at a 45° angle, or vertically) and bromeliads. Eggs are laid near or submerged in water. Adults will engage in parental care if eggs are not removed and reared artificially.
Clutch sizes normally range from 4-10 eggs, although larger clutches are possible.
As tadpoles can be cannibalistic, they should be raised individually. The time required from hatch to morph can range from 3.5-6 months. It should be noted that SLS has been observed to be very common with this species.
D. ventrimaculatus 'French Guiana Yellow' Adult Female:
D. ventrimaculatus 'Gold Amazonicus':
D. ventrimaculatus 'French Guiana Yellow' showing throat markings:
Vent tad about to pop forelimbs:
Bottom of same tad:
D. ventrimaculatus 'Red/Orange Amazonicus' showing 'Amazonicus' throat markings:
DV-CIN - 'Iquitos Red-Orange UE'
DV-CIN - Iquitos Red-Orange froglet:
DV-SBPEL - 'Borja Ridge UE'
DV-BTN - 'Blackwater UE'
(1) Under The Story Enterprises
Ron Brewer (RGB)
Corey Wickliffe (KeroKero)
Kyle Kopp (kyle1745)
Mark Pepper (UE photos and information)
If you would like to see any updates or modifications to this care sheet please let myself or a moderator know.
Last Updated: 12/31/2006