Believe it or not, in the last decade or so, a whole field of research sprung up that deals with animal personalities. Personalities in this case are behavioral traits like aggressiveness, boldness, and sociability. Researchers measure a suite of these traits to see if they persist over time. If so, these are termed "behavioral syndromes" and there are at least a couple of studies that show that behavioral syndromes persist through metamorphosis. One study looked at pond frogs (Rana ridibunda
)  and the other looked at spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum
) . Interestingly, other studies have shown that an individual larva's personality can impact its health and survival, specifically with respect to parasite load .
That's the long way to say that, yes, a tadpole's personality sticks with it through metamorphosis.
 Wilson, A. D. M., & Krause, J. (2012). Personality and metamorphosis: is behavioral variation consistent across ontogenetic niche shifts? Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, 23(6), 1316–1323.
 Koenig, A. M., & Ousterhout, B. H. (2018). Behavioral syndrome persists over metamorphosis in a pond-breeding amphibian. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 72(12), 184.
 Koprivnikar, J., Gibson, C. H., & Redfern, J. C. (2012). Infectious personalities: behavioural syndromes and disease risk in larval amphibians. Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society, 279(1733), 1544–1550.